Following two consecutive years of Oscar nominations sans black acting nominees (2015-16), the hashtag #HollywoodSoWhite shot to the top of the Twitter-verse, launching a worldwide discussion about whether or not Hollywood was truly doing its part to promote diversity onscreen and off. In 2017 a record six black actors were nominated, but does that mean diversity is no longer an issue in Hollywood? Some believe Hollywood needs to increase integration via diversity quotas, but others object to this on grounds of the need to preserve artistic freedom and merit.
Below, we’ll discuss three reasons why Hollywood needs to add more diversity to its ranks, and three ways its promotion of diversity might be more than meets the eye.
Hollywood is diverse.
Diversity is on the rise onscreen.
2017’s Hollywood Diversity report demonstrated clear gains in the number of roles played by minorities and women, with minorities landing 11.4% of all television roles. Television is making strides in ethnic diversity, with major networks featuring shows which of almost exclusively minority casts like “Fresh of the Boat” and “Empire.” African American films and actors has a big year at the 2017 Academy Awards and Golden Globes. At the Globes, the hip-hop comedy, Atlanta, nabbed awards for Best Television Series (Musical or Comedy) and for best actor in a television series. Moonlight, won best film in both arenas, as did Viola Davis for her supporting role in Fences. Mahersha Ali won the Oscar for best-supporting actor in Moonlight, meaning that African American actors walked away with half of the evening’s biggest acting awards.
Premise, not prejudice.
Hollywood doesn’t advance (or reject) racial agendas – it simply looks for stories with the power to captivate audiences (and turn profits). Hollywood is even known for taking chances on such stories, even if they broach sensitive matters of race. In 1977, when television’s black viewership was only 10%, ABC produced and screened “Roots,” a miniseries featuring a mostly black cast, depicting several generations of an American slave family. Beyond being a hit, the show generated nationwide conversation about the uncomfortable realities of America’s history and present. Entertainment journalist Nellie Andreeva writes that the recent success of television’s ethnically diverse programming is the power of each show’s premise – “Empire” and “Cristela” succeed not because they are directed toward ethic audiences, but because they draw audiences into new worlds with compelling stories and characters.
Hollywood’s off-camera diversity is increasing too.
The lack of diversity in Hollywood’s largest studios and broadcast networks has long been a point of contention, but Hollywood has not received this criticism passively. Most large studios and networks offer diversity programs intended to increase the share of positions given to screenwriters and directors of color (and the quantity of roles written for minority actors). Programs like NBC/Universal’s Writers on the Verge Program have proven to be kingmakers, taking writers like Rashad Raisani from obscurity to executive producer status. In keeping with its pledge to double female and minority membership by 2020, Last year, the American Academy of Art and Film last year invited 774 new members to join their ranks, among them, actors and filmmakers of varied nationality and color.
Hollywood is too white.
Numbers don’t lie.
Hollywood casting offices underrepresent people of color. In the United States, ethnic minorities constitute 40% of the population, but minority actors nab only 26% of film roles. The composition of Hollywood’s executive offices and professional guilds is even less promising. 94% of major production studio executives are white, and until 2017, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences’ membership was 91% white. With both sides of the camera dominated by whites, Hollywood’s overwhelming whiteness is not an imagined problem, but a statistical reality.
Always a bridesmaid, never a bride.
Of the small portion of roles allotted to people of color, fewer still are leading roles. Only 23% of films made from 2011 to 2015 featured a black lead. Boston Globe columnist Renée Graham points out that even when a black star does score a lead role, it is most often against the backdrop of a white character who facilitates the black character’s – a “white savior,” she calls them. For example, the film “Hidden Figures,” depicts a black NASA mathematician whose success is sponsored by her benevolent white boss. Similar dynamics occur in “The Blind Side,” “The Help,” and countless others, begging the question why can’t Hollywood seem to let its black heroes stand alone.
Some roles are written for ethnically diverse characters. Unfortunately, by and large, Hollywood prefers white actors to play them. Whitewashing has a long history in American film, from Mickey Rooney’s Japanese caricature, Mr. Yunioshi, in “Breakfast at Tiffany’s” to Jonny Depp’s take on Tonto, John Wayne’s Native American sidekick. Whitewashing takes more forms than just appointing white actors to roles written for non-white characters. In films based on true stories, the story’s real-life inspiration, if an ethnic minority, is often portrayed as white onscreen. Ben Affleck’s “Argo” completely erased protagonist Antonio Mendez’s Chicano heritage. John Ma, the blackjack virtuoso of Chinese decent upon whom the film “21” is based, onscreen becomes “Ben Campbell,” a generic, Hollywood-approved white guy.
Bottom Line: When considering the distribution of work in Hollywood amongst ethnic minorities, one might be quick to conclude that American entertainment is one of the country’s last vestiges of institutionalized racism. But are numbers the bottom line of every story? You decide.